Was he a ruthless dictator with a personality cult, or a great leader of the USSR that accomplished great things? 4, June 1988) As we write, the pre-congress discussion for the All Union 19th. How far did Stalin, to 1939, continue the policies of Lenin? Unfortunately for the country concerned “you cannot make an omelette without breaking eggs”7; these words of Stalin’s in his 1939 work ‘A Critical Survey of Bolshevism” were perhaps an attempt at justifying his actions up to that date, and indeed a warning sign of what was to come.Siding with the hated fascist enemy in the 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact was a prime example of Stalin’s many diversions from political ideology in favour of pragmatic solutions. Walter Lacqueur Stalin: The Glasnost Revelations (1990) Richard Pipes (ed) The Unknown Lenin: From the Soviet Archives (1996) Robert Service Three Whys of the Russian Revolution (1998) Robert Service Lenin: A Political Life (3 vols, 1985-92) Robert Service The Russian Revolution 1917-32 (1986) Vladimir Lenin was, I'm sure you know, the leader and architect of the revolution. But over all, people under Napoleon's rule are happy (except the royalists). Trotsky believed in “eternal revolution”, thast the USSR should actively work to make the rest of the world Communist. There will be no one party state, there will be free elections, the right of recall, no official on higher than workers’ wages and the rotation of all functions between different people. Trotsky was not without fault – he was a harsh man, the commander of the Red Army who advocated the use of chemical weapons to suppress the Krondstadt rebellion. Answer. After Lenin’s death, a bureaucracy seized power, at whose head was Joseph Stalin. Even after Communism had been made secure in the USSR, he showed no interest in spreading it. The Communist Parties were purged and became a mouthpiece for the Moscow bureaucracy. The Opposition did not oppose the formation or maintenance of the bloc. This meant that a layer of bureaucrats began to creep back. Did Joseph Stalin betray the revolution? That revolution was led by the Bolshevik Party under Lenin and Trotsky. His policies are partially based upon the principles of the French Revolution. Stalin remained all his life true to the ideal of a classless, stateless world society. It was a U-turn on both Marxism and Lenin’s previous policy of ‘war communism’ and angered the left of the party. The only way of determining whether Napoleon consolidated or betrayed the revolution is to explore his actions such as his military success, Dictatorship and social reforms. Only on the basis of a highly developed industry, agriculture, science and technology is it possible to guarantee the conditions for the free development of human beings, starting with a drastic reduction in the working day: the prior conditi… The Russian Revolution was the most important event in history, where for the first time the workers came to power and swept out all the landlords and capitalists. A detailed biography of Joseph Stalin that includes includes images, quotations and the main facts of his life. Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity 2. Russian Revolution. Stalin's death. We re-publish here an article written by our comrade Andy from Goldsmiths Marxists in 2017, which outlines the radical history of tenants' struggles in Britain, from the beginning of the twentieth century onwards. Therefore, in the aspects of terror and ideology, Stalin seems to have mostly betrayed Lenin’s legacy, even though, on the surface, it may have looked like Stalin was fulfilling it by following in Lenin’s footsteps in terms of the extent of his reign of terror and the motives behind his political style. Answer Save. After Lenin’s death, Stalin managed to wheedle himself into power at the head of a growing bureaucratic reaction. These were elements of the monolithic power base which was the antithesis of everything Marx envisaged. ", A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens is one of those stories we can’t seem to get enough of. (repost of deleted question) A user posted a question with this title and the following text, but then deleted it after I answered: I hear many people say that if Vladimir Lenin would have lived long enough for Trotsky to come to power that the USSR would have never collapsed. Marx and Engels explained long ago that socialism - a classless society - requires material conditions in order to exist. It was ironic that the Communist movement had become so dependent on one man in spite of its doctrine, which warned against putting faith in a leader, and its name, which emphasised the will of the ‘community’.Lenin justified the revolution by claiming it would be the ‘spark’ which would ignite the workers of the rest of the world, but the country was clearly not ready for revolution by Marx’s standards – in “a country of one hundred million peasants and five million proletarians”, Bolshevism was no mass movement. This follows from Stalin's annotations in books by Marx, Engels and Lenin in his private library. Stalin’s mediocrity reflected the interests of the officialdom. The result of Stalin’s dictatorship, documented by Trotsky in his book, was not the establishment of socialism but a totalitarian caricature. Yet these ‘Trotskyists’ – in reality a loosely applied catch-all label for anyone deemed dangerous or irritating to Stalin – became via the media evil opponents of the revolution. Stalin – the betrayer of the revolution The Russian Revolution was the most important event in history, where for the first time the workers came to power and swept out all the landlords and capitalists. Stalin did betray the Revolution. Indeed, the ‘Permanent Revolution’ which he advocated adhered far more closely to the Marxist ideal than Stalin’s apparently odd concept of ‘Socialism In One Country’. The NEP improved living conditions for the peasantry, and Lenin established a ‘smychka’2 or alliance with them, but he was also responsible for identifying the ‘kulak’ class which Stalin would later ‘liquidate’. It was recently launched in Mexico by Alan Woods, the editor, and Esteban Volkov, Trotsky’s grandson in the place where Trotsky was murdered. If Napoleon betrayed the Revolution then he betrayed the ideals of Liberty, equality and fraternity. Lenin did not believe that Russia could survive the war. Two leaders had interpreted Marxism in different and apparently opposite ways and the country still bore the scars. I think that's BS, but I'd like some hard evidence and opinions of other people to know if Stalin actually betrayed or fulfill the boundaries of the revolution. However, this is repulsive to Marxist doctrine and arguably the least Marxist aspect of Stalin’s leadership was his lack of interest in spreading the workers’ revolution. Who do you think was the more important figure in Russian history, Lenin or Stalin? That revolution was led by the Bolshevik Party under Lenin and Trotsky. Sadly for Stalin and Russia’s long-suffering peasantry, his trust in Hitler was misplaced and operation Barbarossa was launched in September 1941, too late in the year on the Nazis’ part to avoid the treacherous Russian winter. As just one example, the ‘lubyanka’ in Moscow, which was taken over by Lenin’s Bolsheviks in 1918 and is still the home of Russian intelligence in the present day, became a symbol of oppression when it was used as a base for Lenin’s ‘Cheka’ secret police. The attempt to explain or justify them “by changing circumstances” obviously won’t hold water. Whilst it would be easy to attribute the subsequent degeneration of the Russian Revolution to the cruel and power obsessed nature of Stalin’s character, this is a flawed analysis. Learn about different inspirations for Marxist students. Which slogan expressed the ideals of the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917? Stalin was a horrible guy, but many historians seem to argue that Stalin did it in cause for the Revolution. The Bolsheviks looked to world revolution to save them. He took responsibility for the protection and advancement of a country which was not his own; he insisted that the country and communism itself would ‘be crushed’ by the western capitalist powers within ten years. Almost all left wing parties in Britain from Labour to Communist seem to 'disown' Stalin. As Trotsky explained, a “river of blood” separates Stalinism from Bolshevism. This transformation amounted, in the regime’s own view, to a revolution, and it cut so deep, or so the official line maintained, that it was ‘equivalent in its consequences to the revolution of October 1917’. At the same time Stalin made his own form of government inseparable in the public eye from Leninism, appearing alongside him not only in posters but also ultimately in death, in the Lenin Mausoleum. Communist victories internationally owed little or nothing to him or his government, notably Mao Zedong’s ‘People’s Republic’ of China in 1949. Those that spoke out, or just those who Stalin thought were likely to speak out, were silenced or had their stories disclaimed by the Stalinist media, always rewriting history in “the great Stalin school of falsification”4. However, taking into account the fact that Marx and Engels foresaw Communism as a ‘utopia’, it was not in reality even a ‘dictatorship of the proletariat’ in any shape or form, since the people had no say in how their lives were run under Lenin or Stalin. In terms of what this means for 21st century revolution, it is vital that we oppose any bureaucratic imposition. He was certainly playing a Machiavellian game in politics and was clearly concerned about suffering the same fate as his rivals. This book, along with many other works by Trotsky introduced an important concept that illustrates the phenomenon of the rise of people like Stalin and Mao: Proletarian Bonapartism. Stalin did not know that without the development of heavy ... begin an evolution which always lands them in the camp of the counter-revolution. Let the MSF do it! I support at least 50-60% of almost everything Stalin and Mao did , which is way more than any other leader I can think of. The Marxist analysis contained within the book will be key for anyone attempting to understand either the USSR or the role of Stalin. We do not need a bureaucracy as much of the economic organisation of society can now be computerised. Since the original novella was released in 1843 under the title ‘A Christmas Carol. We know that sometimes it's hard to find inspiration, so we provide you with hundreds of related samples. I have to write a paper about it and I have no idea how to answer this. T he historians of the Soviet Union cannot fail to conclude that the policy of the ruling bureaucracy upon great questions has been a series of contradictory zigzags. Stalin in practice was no different from the Tsar Nicholas II calling the concept of life without authoritarian repression “senseless dreams”5. "My mother, father and I were all devoured by the Cultural Revolution," said Zhang, 60, who is now a lawyer. To guide means at least in some degree to exercise foresight. With no support from any countries, the Russian Revolution was in a “besieged fortress”. I love these leaders and the effects they had on the world, the positive , humanity saving effects they had. An understanding of Stalinism and its counter-revolutionary nature is vital for all socialists and revolutionaries. Unfortunately, the revolutions in other countries were betrayed by their reformist leaders. Trotsky was a revolutionary who, along with Lenin, led the overthrow of the Russian Tsarist dynasty in … By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy. 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